Aztec Calendar

$79.00

The Aztec calendar is the calendar system that was used by the Aztecs as well as other Pre-Columbian peoples of central Mexico. It is one of the most surprisingly accurate Mesoamerican calendars and is similar to the Mayan Calendar. The calendric year may have begun at some point in the distant past with the first appearance of the Pleiades asterism in the east immediately before the dawn light.

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The Aztec calendar is the calendar system that was used by the Aztecs as well as other Pre-Columbian peoples of central Mexico. It is one of the most surprisingly accurate Mesoamerican calendars and is similar to the Mayan Calendar. The calendric year may have begun at some point in the distant past with the first appearance of the Pleiades asterism in the east immediately before the dawn light.

The tonalpohualli (“day count”) consists of a cycle of 260 days, each day signified by a combination of a number from 1 to 13, and one of the twenty day signs. With each new day, both the number and day sign would be incremented: 1 Crocodile is followed by 2 Wind, 3 House, 4 Lizard, and so forth up to 13 Reed, after which the cycle of numbers would restart (though the twenty day signs had not yet been exhausted) resulting in 1 Jaguar, 2 Eagle, and so on, as the days immediately following 13 Reed. This cycle of number and day signs would continue similarly until the 20th week, which would start on 1 Rabbit, and end on 13 Flower. It would take a full 260 days (13×20) for the two cycles (of twenty day signs, and thirteen numbers) to realign and repeat the sequence back on 1 Crocodile.

Day signs
The set of day signs used in central Mexico is identical to that used by Mixtecs, and to a lesser degree similar to those of other Mesoamerican calendars. Each of the day signs also bears an association with one of the four cardinal directions.

There is some variation in the way the day signs were drawn or carved. Those here were taken from the Codex Magliabechiano.

Image Nahuatl name Pronunciation English translation Direction
Cipactli.jpg Cipactli [siˈpaktɬi] Crocodile
Alligator
Caiman
Crocodilian Monster
East
Ehecatl2.jpg Ehēcatl [eʔˈeːkatɬ] Wind North
Calli.jpg Calli [ˈkaɬːi] House West
Cuetzpalin.jpg Cuetzpalin [kʷetsˈpalin̥] Lizard South
Coatl.jpg Cōātl [ˈku˕ːwaːtɬ] Serpent
Snake
East
Miquiztli.jpg Miquiztli [miˈkistɬi] Death North
Mazatl.jpg Mazātl [ˈmasaːtɬ] Deer
Animal
West
Tochtli.jpg Tōchtli [ˈtu˕ːtʃtɬi] Rabbit South
Atl3.jpg Ātl [ˈaːtɬ] Water East
Itzcuintli.jpg Itzcuintli [itsˈkʷin̥tɬi] Dog North
Ozomatli.jpg Ozomatli
Ozomahtli
[u˕su˕ˈmaʔtɬi] Monkey West
Image Nahuatl name Pronunciation English translation Direction
Malinalli.jpg Malīnalli [maliːˈnaɬːi] Grass South
Acatl.jpg Ācatl [ˈaːkatɬ] Reed East
Ocelotl.jpg Ōcēlōtl [u˕ːˈseːlu˕ːtɬ] Jaguar North
Cuauhtli.jpg Cuāuhtli [ˈkʷaːʍtɬi] Eagle West
Cozcacuauhtli.jpg Cōzcacuāuhtli [ku˕ːskaˈkʷaːʍtɬi] Vulture South
Olin (Aztec glyph from the Codex Magliabechiano).jpg Olīn [ˈu˕liːn̥] Movement
Quake
Earthquake
East
Tecpatl.jpg Tecpatl [ˈtekpatɬ] Flint
Flint Knife
North
Quiahuitl.jpg Quiyahuitl [kiˈjawitɬ] Rain West
Xochitl.jpg Xōchitl [ˈʃu˕ːtʃitɬ] Flower South

Information from Wikipedia.

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